Beam me up Sco... BOB!
This sentence, that we all know from Star Trek, laid the grounds for what we understand for teleportation. Quantum teleportation might sound even more fascinating than our idea of teleportation, but you will learn that it doesn't really look like you'd think.
In this video, an explanation of quantum teleportation is given. Note that it is not the particle (or carrier) that is teleported (like you would expect from Star Trek), but merely the information that this carrier has (the qubit). This information is teleported to an already existing different particle. We call it teleportation instead of transmission of quantum information because the qubits go from one place to another without being transmitted through a quantum channel. We have indeed managed to teleport the information from one carrier to another one using only the power of entanglement and a phone call.
The measurement that Alice is performing is called a Bell State measurement (or BSM). Upon projection, the two rotations that Bob will need to apply to reconstruct Alice's information are revealed. Can you maybe work out the math for a single round of the protocol?
It is essential to know that this teleportation procedure is basic when operating in quantum networks. What do you think would happen if Alice's particle is also maximally entangled with another 4th Qubit? Entanglement swap!